2015 in review

The WordPress.com stats helper monkeys prepared a 2015 annual report for this blog.

Here’s an excerpt:

A New York City subway train holds 1,200 people. This blog was viewed about 6,800 times in 2015. If it were a NYC subway train, it would take about 6 trips to carry that many people.

Dear Readers,

Thank you very much for taking this journey with me! Wishing you and your human and canine family members good health and much happiness in 2016!

Hugs to All,

Magda Chiarella

Posted in Uncategorized | 4 Comments

Montgomery And Trading Oranges

Every year terrier fanciers flock to their most important show of the year: Montgomery. Right now, as I type these words people all over America and in other parts of the world are packing their bags as they prepare to make their pilgrimage to Montgomery next week.

I just came upon an old article I wrote years ago describing a memory of my very first time at this most prestigious terrier event. At the time my husband and I were looking for a family pet and I really, really wanted a Norwich or a Norfolk Terrier. This is admittedly an old memory, but honestly the spirit of Montgomery has not changed a bit.


Convincing my husband Michael that a little terrier was the perfect dog for us was a piece of cake.  I wore him out with just a second dozen of arguments. To take care of any residual resistance I dragged him to the biggest terrier show: Montgomery County Kennel Club dog show.  Think “terrier Mecca”.

Montgomery 002 Montgomery 017

I was expecting Snobville.  What I found was nothing short of extraordinary. It was like a trip into a different dimension in the universe, a day in a foreign country without having to cross any geographical borders. I was always aware of the existence of dog show world, with its die-hard breed fanciers, intense competitiveness and what I disparagingly perceived as “froo-froo” culture.  My idea of it had as much to do with its reality, as do Guinea pigs with Guinea, or with pigs for that matter.

There were white tents, and show rings, stretching as far as an eye could see, with thousands of people and gorgeous dogs milling around.  There were rows of fine vendors, smiles and nods, clinking of real china and glasses in a lunch tent, set up for a sit-down meal on white linens, the atmosphere of festivity and gentility at the same time.  Michael and I had an unmistakable look of the outsiders, tourists gawking at a foreign spectacle.  Our casual, non-dog-show clothing stood in contrast to Barbour coats, suits and ties, plaid jackets and skirts, ladies’ hats, hand-made leather boots, and the ultimate in dog show essentials: dog motif jewelry. You could tell a person’s association with a given terrier breed, either by the obvious fact that there was a certain terrier at the end of a show lead they were holding, or by looking at their tie pins, brooches, pendants, rings, earrings, or embroidered towels, director’s chairs, hand painted bags, purses, umbrellas, grooming bags, etc.  Ad nauseum!

The interesting thing was that although some of it was tacky individually, collectively it was not.  There was certain Gaudi-esque opulence in everything screaming a terrier theme, but somehow it all went together and belonged.  In a funny way it was like finding Barcelona in a British countryside. It was lovely. The air was crisp, the sky blue.  You could see the first touch of red in leaves of maple trees, a prelude to a symphony of color the North East is famous for.

I did not know at the time that Montgomery County Kennel Club’s show was the most prestigious terrier event of the year in North America.  While standing in line to buy a show catalog, I exchanged some pleasantries with a man speaking with an Australian accent.   “What is bringing you to the USA?” I asked. He looked at me with dismay and answered “Montgomery”.

But of course! Forget the televised all-breed shows.  Montgomery is the real McCoy for a terrier fancier.  It stands in stark contrast to the glitz indoor shows, piped to TV sets in living rooms of bored house-wives, with breaks for commercials in order to sell cars and diarrhea pills. Montgomery is held on the real grass, under a real, often leaky October sky, with no camera crews pressuring for fake smiles. At Montgomery you will meet many terriers that will be chasing rodents, or digging holes in their owners’ back yards when the show is over.  This is a display of a wide and authentic cross-section of each terrier breed recognized by the American Kennel Club.

My head was spinning as I was trying to understand the rules of AKC championship shows. It is all quite democratic, fair to a fault.  Fault being a complicated set of laws aiming at leveling the playing field, especially a point system for becoming a champion, which takes into consideration even differences in popularity of each breed per geographic area. Huh?  These are not rules you glance at, and instantly understand.  But what a spirit of good sportsmanship! What seriousness applied to a sport of walking a dog on a lead around a ring! Oh, yes. Show dogs have leads.  Pets have leashes.  Speaking of vocabulary, where else can you say That’s a pretty little bitch”, as if you were describing a flower in your mother’s garden?

Montgomery County Kennel Club show is held yearly, usually first Sunday in October, in Eastern PA, a short drive North-West of Philadelphia.  The kennel club hosting the famous show started as a small group of dog fanciers.  The first shows were so intimate they were held at places like a country inn, a fire house, and a small hotel.   There have been over 80 years of this, now famous, terrier extravaganza. The first Montgomery of 1929 must have been a howling success. The club put on the show every year after that, with the only event able to put it on hold being World War II.  It is pretty much permanently attached to a first Sunday of each October, with the exception of one lonely Wednesday show, and only a handful of years when it was scheduled for the 2nd Sunday.  Just to keep its fans on their toes; true terrier style.

When the shows grew a bit in popularity, and outgrew the first couple of venues, they moved to a farm, and later an estate, of one of its members, G. Harrison Frazer, Jr. They were still very personal and cozy in scale.  The Fraziers are credited with the atmosphere of Eastern Pennsylvania country estate hospitality, which Montgomery miraculously retained in spite of its ballooning scale.

When my husband and I were absorbing its magic for the first time, the show was held at a campus of Temple University in its 20-something year at that location.  Less than ten years later, due to its forever growing popularity, and increasing difficulties with parking space, the show was moved to the grounds of Montgomery County Community College in Blue Bell, Pennsylvania.  As big and prestigious as the show is, it is still by and large a terrier fancier secret. Shhhh….

Contrary to my initial misconceptions, the show is so much more than a canine beauty pageant. The essence of Montgomery is a gathering of people, who genuinely and deeply care for their terriers; people whose lives are defined to a great extent by a hobby of breeding them; people whose main focus is to preserve and improve their beloved breeds. Sure, there is judging, and winning, and trophies; big and bigger egos. But first and foremost, it is a breeder’s showcase.  Most people come to Montgomery not so much to win a ribbon, but to show off their dogs to other breeders, to see other dogs, to catch up on the whereabouts of old friends, and to bore all the outsiders with fine points of the game.  I know it will sound plain, but the show is really about terriers. A win at Montgomery is an icing on a very sumptuous cake.

It was easy to see a genuine affection dogs were showered with. Most of the terriers visibly enjoyed the excitement of seeing the crowd of people and dogs, of spending a day with their humans, of getting attention from others.

I was so enchanted, that if anyone was to predict I was never to skip a single Montgomery from that day on, I would have not batted an eye.  I instantly absorbed its magnetic appeal.

IMG_2052It was an unforgettable experience in no small part because that was where we met Norwich and Norfolk terriers in flesh for the very first time.  On your first encounter Norwich Terriers can be noisy, hyper and scream for your attention with all they’ve got.  They will wiggle, “talk” to you, jump up and run circles and, if only given a chance, shower you with doggy kisses.  What is there not to like?  I will tell you what – lots of that every day, every time you were absent, no matter for how a ridiculously brief moment.  You have to be a person who would enjoy that.  Of course I missed all the warning signs.  I was hooked.

I knew that if I was to be successful in getting the little scruffy dog I had to make some concessions.  I decided I would be happy with either a Norwich or a Norfolk terrier; boy or girl; red, grizzle or black and tan.  Michael was still mentioning a bigger dog, and when speaking of terriers he was gravitating dangerously too close to an Australian terrier ring. I had to hustle. Now I had the little dog under my skin.  It was burning me with unyielding desire.

At Montgomery we made contacts with breeders, who were all pleasant and generous with their time. We petted many terriers, and returned home with a strong resolve. Mine was to convince some breeder to entrust me with a Norfolk or a Norwich Terrier, Michael’s was to find an Australian Terrier puppy for us.

After a letter and e-mail writing campaign, and a couple of strong endorsements from friends involved in dog breeding and dog rescue, I finally got in touch with a Norwich breeder willing to sell me a dog.  I was getting a male puppy.  I was warned that he was exceedingly shy.  To the breeder, my interest in getting involved with dog sports seemed like a good match for the puppy that needed to be coaxed out of his shell. In my own thoughts, my interest in having a high drive puppy became instantly secondary to euphoria of being promised any Norwich at all.

I swallowed hard when I heard the price.  In my mind I quickly translated the cost of owning a Norwich Terrier into a 5-day Caribbean vacation for two.  It was also equivalent to two thousand pounds of Navel oranges, or the 52-piece fine China dinnerware, which for weeks I had been window shopping for. I stuck with the oranges in my mind.  Who needs two thousand pounds of oranges?  I was going to be perfectly fine without the ridiculous amount of citrus.

baby Biskit

baby Biskit – my first Norwich Terrier

It was a trade I never regretted.

Post Scriptum in photos:


A win at Montgomery is a huge thrill to a terrier fancier. This is Dash, my home-bred Winners Dog at Montgomery, expertly shown by Lori Pelletier in 2008.


A friend snapped this photo of me while I was showing Holly in a bred-by class at Montgomery, probably in 2006. The absolutely biggest joy is showing a dog that enjoys being shown.

Posted in Dog Shows | Tagged , | 1 Comment

What Might Surprise You About Vaccines

I’m overhearing a conversation while in the waiting room at a vet’s office.

“Spot is going to a boarding kennel tomorrow and they require his yearly shots to be up-to-date. Oh, and a kennel cough vaccine” says a dog owner while looking at her cell phone, clearly in a rush.

The receptionist is responding with an explanation that this vet practice requires a vaccine visit 2 weeks before a planned boarding of a dog.

”What’s the difference? He’s here now,” says Spot’s owner, her voice betraying annoyance.

In my mind I chalk her ignorance up to a superficial interest in her dog’s well-being. Bringing the dog to a vet is just one of the things to check off on her to-do-list before she goes away, and vaccinating just a boarding kennel requirement. How the vaccines work is not even remotely on her mind. Request for multiple vaccinations, repeated yearly, shots given right before boarding a dog in the kennel; all this spells lack of knowledge.

When I get home I forget all about Spot’s owner but I just happen to read a post in an online breeder forum that brings that memory back. I am surprised with the connection. A breeder who is taking a great pride in properly socializing her puppies is bragging about an enriched environment she created for her pups, with various surfaces to walk over, a home-made mobile, a wobbly board. Here is a person who cares and invests energy into her dogs. She shares photos of the setup – in a spacious exercise pen outdoors, and adds that she just vaccinated her 6-week old puppies the day before so that they could enjoy the outdoor playground.

Time out! As a breeder, you should know how vaccinations work.

How Vaccine Works

Merriam-Webster defines vaccine as “a preparation of killed microorganisms, living attenuated organisms, or living fully virulent organisms that is administered to produce or artificially increase immunity to a particular disease”. In plain English, vaccine is used to stimulate the production of antibodies.  Those antibodies will provide immunity against a disease, an injected substance will not work on its own. Vaccine is not a magic potion instantly protecting against disease.


When you are injecting a vaccine into your dog’s body, you are injecting a substance that needs time to stimulate your dog’s immune system to start producing antibodies. Depending on the kind of vaccine and on the dog’s immunity this process can take from 1 to 3 weeks. For example, when you travel to Europe with your dog you will be required a rabies vaccine administered at least 3 weeks prior to entering EU. Those 3 weeks reflect the time needed to develop antibodies to a rabies vaccine.


Let us not forget that a vaccine is “a preparation of killed microorganisms, living attenuated organisms, or living fully virulent organisms”. That’s some scary sounding stuff. Actually, the body perceives it as such and goes to battle against it. The process we intend to cause, namely production of antibodies, means taxing the body with an event simulating a disease. Following the injection of a vaccine an immune system is going through a process similar to having a disease. A lot of energy is devoted to the production of white blood cells, which creates a temporary deficiency in immune system’s ability to respond to something else. This is not the time to bring your dog to a dog show, or a boarding kennel, or a young pup to physically stressful or pathogen rich environment. Both Spot’s owner and the loving breeder who set up a wonderful playground for her very young pups outdoors were oblivious to those facts.

Vaccine Protocols

A lot of discussion surrounds various vaccination protocols for dogs as if they were solid rules to be picked between. Not enough discussion illuminates the process of acquiring immunity against a disease. Understanding the process would help breeders and dog owners to make informed decisions about when to vaccinate and with what vaccines (in other words which protocol is best suited for their dog). There is really no “one size fits all” answer when it comes to something as individual as an organism producing disease fighting cells. Just think about it. There are no two identical dogs in this world. It comes to reason that the way they build immunity will be very individualized.

American Veterinary Medical Association has two protocols for vaccinating puppies. One is for puppies of “unknown history”, the other for a healthy pup with known origins. This distinction reflects the fact that vaccination is a process, with one of its components being the immune system of the puppy and its mother.

When the American Animal Hospital Association formed a task force to review the most current scientific data on vaccinations and to develop vaccine guidelines for veterinarians, its chairperson Dr. Michael Paul had this to say at the conclusion of the committee’s work: “The guidelines should not be construed as dictating an exclusive protocol, course of treatment, or procedure. They serve as a guide for developing vaccine schedules for individual patients”.

One of the foremost authorities on the process of acquiring immunity to disease through vaccination is Dr.Jean Dodds, founder of Hemopet, an animal blood bank and specialty diagnostic laboratory (as well as a retired racing greyhound rescue). Dr.Dodds’ vaccination protocols are often favored by breeders.

To make an informed decision about which protocol to choose for your dog, let us look at a few key facts.

Puppy Vaccination

One of the most misunderstood facts about puppy shots is why we vaccinate puppies two or three times, and what factors influence the optimum time to administer those shots.

The answer is the strength of puppy’s dam’s immune system and receiving colostrum after birth.


Right after birth a puppy nurses on so called “first milk”, or colostrum. I like saying that it is a true toast to health, as colostrum contains all the mother dog’s antibodies for diseases. A newborn’s stomach wall is porous to allow for his dam’s antibodies to pass through its holes directly into the bloodstream. We now know that this “window of opportunity” is open for only a few hours after birth. The stomach wall closes as early as 6 hours after birth.

Antibodies are large proteins. If ingested even next day, they will not make it into the puppy’s bloodstream. If the puppy is able to nurse on colostrum after birth, he is receiving what is called Maternal Derived Antibodies. MDAs will be protecting him for up to 14 weeks from the diseases his mother is immune to. What is more, it will protect him against even killed viruses, you know, the thing we call vaccines. So in order for a puppy vaccine to work, meaning stimulate the production of antibodies, MDAs cannot interfere.

Here is our first “if”. If the puppy received colostrum (nursed right after birth), he will most likely not be able to mount a response to a vaccine for at least 9 to 10 weeks, or even longer. MDAs will block the vaccine. Vaccinating such puppy at 6-8 weeks is almost certain to be too soon. If, on the other hand, the puppy did not receive colostrum, vaccinating at week 6-8 makes sense. What if the mother dog was not a healthy individual and did not have a strong immunity towards disease? That is another “if” we need to consider.

Every puppy vaccination protocol, whether it advocates three or two vaccines, whether it advocates the first shot to be administered at 6 weeks or 10 weeks of age, aims at delivering the vaccine (that killed or weakened nasty stuff) at the time when the body will start producing the antibodies. It is literally a guessing game when that is. The more is known about the puppy and its mother, the more informed that guess is.

I think the most common misconception is that a puppy needs more than one shot.  It doesn’t. All vaccine protocols were devised to cover the period when MDAs wear off so that one of the vaccines is sure to be administered at the right time. Once it works, a vaccine received afterwards is no longer useful. In other words when we vaccinate puppies two or three times it is only one vaccine that creates antibodies. Only one of them! We do two or three to hit the right time with one of them when MDAs are not so strong that the vaccine is interfered with, but not so weak that the puppy might be unprotected.

The protocol for shelter puppies with unknown origins comprises of 3 shots starting very early, at week 6, then at week 10-12 and then again at week 14-16.  The AAHA protocol of administering shots at 8 weeks/12 weeks/16 weeks is based on very broad averages of “reasonably healthy” puppies and their mothers.

Breeders, who know that their mother dogs are healthy, and their puppies nursed properly and received colostrum are best suited by Dr.Dodds protocol. She recommends vaccinating healthy puppies at week 9 and week 14. Only two vaccines. They cover the entire optimal period when MDAs from a healthy inoculated mother stop interfering with puppy vaccines and right before a puppy is unprotected.

What’s coming in the future is rather than trying to “hit” the right time blindly, we could first run a blood test (titer) on the puppy’s MDAs and then vaccinate when the numbers are in the optimum range with one vaccine. The technology exists, but availability of lab service and cost effectiveness is what is coming, when running a couple of titers would be less expensive than vaccinating more than once.

All puppy vaccine protocols agree on a booster at 1 year old. After that you can check the protection against disease by running titers every 3 years, as Dr. Dodds recommends, or vaccinate every 3 years as per the current AAHA guidelines. All recent studies confirm longevity of vaccine protection spanning as much as the dog’s lifetime, certainly lasting longer than a year. Annual vaccinations could become a thing of uninformed past.


Another important consideration is what vaccines to administer. Again, that depends. That is a conversation to have with your vet. A dog that will actively hunt might benefit from some non-core vaccines. For most pooches sharing our sheltered lives core vaccines are all they would need. Dr.Dodds recommends vaccinating only with Parvo and Distemper vaccines, without any additional components. For example Adenovirus has not been recorded in over 15 years in North America.


Rabies is a vaccine legally regulated by state laws. The law compliance overrides medical considerations, but when permitted puppies should be vaccinated no earlier than at 20 weeks old and again with boosters as required by state law. One important consideration for rabies is to use a vaccine that does not contain thimerosal (mercury), for example Merial IMRAB TF (TF stands for “thimerosal free”).

I doubt this article will ever reach Spot’s owner, but I hope that responsible breeders and concerned dog owners will choose optimum timing for vaccination that suits each individual dog and situation. There is an overwhelming proof that over-vaccination is harmful, but judicious vaccination saves lives. As with everything else, human knowledge has an expiration date, so please do check up on new research about vaccines periodically.


  • Parvovirus and Distemper at week 9 and at week 14 of life
  • Parvovirus and Distemper at 1 year old
  • Titers every 3 years afterwards
  • Rabies at 20 weeks or later, then boosters per local laws
  • Non-core vaccines as appropriate for the location and dog’s risk of exposure to disease
Posted in Dog Breeding, Puppy rearing, Vaccinations | Leave a comment

Losing a Puppy. A Heartache of Breeding.

A show dog breeder’s life is not glamorous, but it does evoke a response of “aww… puppies!” However, a breeder’s daily routines are more “eww…” than “aww…”

Everyone imagines the deliciousness of being surrounded by fluffy cuteness on comically unsteady legs. The real comical moments, though, are dosing off sitting upright and drooling into a whelping box after a few sleepless nights holding vigil over newborn puppies. Then, stepping into warm poop inside your favorite slippers at 4 AM because the mama dog also held a vigil over her babies and did not want to leave them to go potty outside, even as it would have been just a couple of steps to the doggy door, the grass, and back. Moments like that, or any number of their variations, are known to every breeder.

Breeders are experts at a “fill in the blank” game shared with other breeders. Stepping in (fill in the blank: poop, pee, vomit), finding a chewed up (fill in the blank: silk dress, iPhone, legal document), unending ( fill in the blank: potty break shifts, prevention of dog fights). You get the gist. It’s not all fluffy puppy cuteness.

However, we all take the “eww…” and “oh-no!” moments, even lots of them, in strides. They are worth the “aww…” moments.  Not only with puppies, but with our beloved adult dogs too. We love dogs. That is why we do what we do.

What is really hard, and I mean really, really hard is losing a puppy. No heap of dog vomit on my pillow has ever made me think of quitting. Losing a puppy does.

Losing Leelu

It took me two weeks of digesting the experience and grieving to be able to write about losing one of the newborn puppies.  I lost Leelu at day 10 of her life and it hurt so much I found it difficult to get back to covering that litter in the blog. However, I would be deceiving you if I wasn’t including the heartache part of dog breeding.

The litter was born a few days early. The most fragile, critical first few days were not without challenges but I seemed to manage all the little crises well. Moxie got a little hypocalcemic, then two of the puppies developed diarrhea, but I dealt with it and all seemed to be good. Then, one of the puppies, a little black and tan girl Leelu got colicky.


Colic is not uncommon in newborn puppies. It’s an awfully draining experience for all involved because the puppy is in pain and screaming. The puppy is miserable, the mother dog frantic, the breeder worried and suffering with the puppy.

Leelu was responding well to gentle belly massages and being held in a “colic hold”, clasping my hands around the puppy and holding it almost upright, with about 30 degrees tilt forward. The puppy’s chest rests in a palm, while the other hand supports the butt. Any gas pockets in the belly have room to move more freely. The puppy usually settles immediately. I was also giving Leelu tiniest drops of simethicone baby tincture. She was responding well and immediately, but the second I would put her back in the whelping box, she would cry again.

I suspected that she was not voiding properly, so I tried stimulating her to poop. Nothing was happening. The puppy was obviously constipated. I used warm water enema and Leelu started birthing little poop rocks. She seemed to feel much better after voiding. Now my concern was to keep her fed, hydrated and warm. Unfortunatley, Leelu would be OK for a little while and would start crying again. Holding her and helping her to poop helped every time, but not for long.


That went on and off the entire night, then during the day she was better. However, she was not nursing more than for a minute. While her siblings nursed vigorously Leelu would start and then fall off the nipple. I was torn whether I should be bringing her to my vet and risk exposure of a weak premature pup to pathogens.  I decided to play it by ear and not visit a vet yet.

Moxie sweetly cuddled the puppy and always made sure she was either trying to nurse or was kept warm. But Leelu was getting increasingly less interested in nursing, so I had to start supplementing mother’s milk.

Moxie cradling Leelu under her chin while Willa and Chester are nursing.

Moxie cradling Leelu under her chin while Willa and Chester are nursing.

Tube Feeding

Tube feeding is a common practice when a newborn puppy, for whatever reason, is not getting enough mother’s milk. The equipment used is a special sterile tube with small holes at its blunt edge, sized appropriately for a given puppy breed (I use size 5 French feeding tube for newborn Norwich pups).

DSC_6231First, the distance from the mouth to the stomach is measured and marked on the tube. The mark tells me whether the tube reached the stomach. Puppy formula, warmed to 100 degrees F, is drawn into a syringe. The puppy is put on a warm towel on a table, end of tube dipped in milk and then offered to the puppy. A hungry puppy starts swallowing the tube. First time breeders should always practice with someone experienced in tube feeding before attempting it, but it’s a relatively easy procedure. Once the mark is by puppy’s mouth, indicating the proper length of tube reached the stomach, you hold the tube and puppy’s head together with one hand and push the plunger of the syringe with the warm milk with the other hand. Once done, you just pull the tube out without any resistance, because the swallowing mechanism protects entry of objects only in one direction. You have to have the pup’s cooperation in swallowing the tube, getting the tube out takes a split second.

Tenuous Improvement

Leelu was tube fed for 3 days and nights and she was getting much better. She started nursing with vigor: kneading Moxie’s tit, nursing for a long time, having a good suction, finding another nipple fast when bumped off by a sibling. However, soon after she’d nurse she would start with colic and being constipated. Again, I switched to tube feeding round the clock.

By day 9 of life Leelu was gaining weight well and she was not colicky. However, she still had trouble with constipation. I was making sure she was hydrated and warm, adjusted the milk formula, but Leelu needed enemas to poop.  Every time I hoped to get her to poop by stimulation only, not much was happening. However, once she pooped she seemed well. Her temperature was normal and she appeared strong and content. I was hoping the worst was over and her voiding would improve soon as well.

At day 10 of her life, in the very early morning hours Leelu started crashing. She was weak, almost listless. I made the terrible mistake of tube feeding her. She threw up what I fed her less than a minute later. I knew instantly that she might have aspirated her vomit because she started to gasp for air. I grabbed her and brought her to my fabulous vet with years of experience with newborns. After examining Leelu, taking x-rays and an ultrasound Dr.B confirmed that Leelu had some liquid in one lung and that she was terribly constipated.  We decided together to end her suffering.

I did not find a conclusive answer to what caused Leelu’s digestive problems. She was severely constipated, but no deformities were found. Someone suggested that it could have been hydrocephaly, but my vet claims that although he did not examine Leelu’s brain, he would have seen hydrocephaly on x-rays. She also did not have any other symptoms of it.

Statistically, puppies born prematurely are ten times more likely to die before 2 weeks of age than puppies born full term. Their lungs and digestive tract are especially vulnerable, as they have to start functioning before being fully developed. I will never know for sure if there was anything else I could have done to save Leelu, and whether not tube feeding her on the morning when she was crashing would have avoided her demise. That question will haunt me.


The last photo I took of Leelu, when I thought she had turned around and was going to be OK.

A Toll Every Breeder Pays

After a few sleepless nights, punctuated with joy of recovery a sudden turn for the worse is an impossibly hard blow. For everyone enjoying their dog bred by a responsible breeder, please thank them every chance you get. The joy of having a healthy, well adjusted, well bred puppy comes at a great emotional toll. I hope to never lose the dedication to every life in my hands, and never to be calloused enough to shrug off a loss of a puppy, but the emotional toll it takes is really high. Every well bred dog had tons of love poured into her.

Hug your incredible puppy today.

Posted in Puppy rearing | Tagged , , | 17 Comments

Week 12 and 13 : Time of Goodbyes and Protocols Of ” A Big Boy In A Big World”

Derby’s First Days Without His Brothers

Our babies started a new life they have been preparing for! One by one the boys left to continue adventures with their loving new owners (more on that in another post). All except Derby.

Potty Training

Derby continues learning to be a perfectly behaved pet. His potty training is going fantastic. We had no single mistake in 6 days!!! The key is a schedule that sets Derby up for success. He sleeps in his crate overnight and waits relaxed and quiet when I walk into the dog room to let him out in the morning at exactly the same time.

DSC_6147As soon as he gets outside he pees and then I let him walk around and sniff as much and as long as he wants. Because he loves playing in the yard I would not bring him back home right after relieving his bladder, as this might create an association of his fun time being cut short right after he pees. I want the potty business to happen immediately and not being impeded by any other concerns.

Exactly one hour after breakfast we go out again and this time our potty outing includes a bathroom need number 1 and 2. Again, I do not rush back after the “business” is done, and this way Derby has no reason to hold off relieving himself in anticipation of an outing coming to an end. Once we return I set my phone timer for exactly 2 hours. The phone aids my faulty memory in keeping exact time for another potty break. At this point Derby’s little bladder is never expected to hold longer than 2 hours. In practical terms it means that Derby goes to work with me, and if I ever need to go out in the evening he is left home with someone to let him out every 2 hours, and one hour after a meal.

The way a behavioral pattern in formed is a behavior being repeated. First, a small neural connection is formed, but with repetitions the connection becomes a pathway, and eventually a neural “highway”. That is one side of forming a desired behavioral pattern of going potty outside: repetitions of success of going potty in the desired place. The other side of the process is to NOT form any memory for bladder relief inside the house. A single mistake avoided is an undesirable pattern not given a chance to form a neural pathway. Prevention of undesired behavior is as important as repetitions of desired behavior. Like in everything else in the very young dog’s life, smart environment management is crucial.

I should also add that for potty training I use verbal praise and petting only, no treats. Many canine behaviorists caution against food rewards used during potty training as this might create a pattern of asking for a potty break not when really needed but to earn a treat.

“Working” Terrier

Derby riding to work

Derby rides in the doggy car seat to work with me,  happily! Once we park he walks on a loose leash, even on streets new to him, over metal grates, with cars and trucks passing by, people walking, large dogs approaching, a train going by a block away. Loose leash training is an important aspect of getting ready for life of good communication between us. Here is a short video of Derby’s beautiful loose leash walking and not hesitating going over a large metal grate (years ago my first Norwich would always pancake in front of any metal grate).

Training loose leash walking of a 12-week old puppy takes literally minutes. Allowing for a bad behavior of leash pulling to form and then re-teaching loose leash walking can take weeks. Not addressing this important skill will cost a lot more than a few minutes devoted to it when training is a breeze between week 10 and 14 in puppy’s life. To communicate effectively what is expected of the puppy, as with all other behaviors, setting for success is the ticket. A few key points are:

  • Put aside time to do leash training. When you truly need to get someplace and you walk a puppy on leash without previous training, you are making a mistake of allowing inevitable pulling, and therefore forming that bad pattern.
  • Never allow any tension to be felt while on leash. Grab the leash 2-3 feet from the puppy and let it gently slip through your fingers as the puppy walks ahead of you and call the puppy towards you whenever he gets close to the end of the leash. If the puppy does not come to you immediately when called, go back to recall training. Solid recall should be taught before training leash walking.
  • Reward loose leash walking. Praise is enough for my dogs but some puppies form better understanding when rewarded with treats. Never lure a puppy with a treat though, as this takes his attention away from learning leash walking.

Once Derby gets into my office his setup is similar to the one he’s familiar with at our home. His “space” is a x-pen with a crate, toys, water bowl, chews. He can observe the world from the safety of his space and he has everything there to occupy himself. He also knows that he never needs to demand attention because he is always getting plenty of it organically throughout the day. When he wants to ask for something he automatically is “manding”, which to any observer just looks like a puppy sitting politely.

If you followed this blog and you thought how crazy it was to devote the time I did teaching my puppies various age-specific protocols, let me assure you the dividends I’m claiming now make all the effort of puppy protocols seem so minimal in comparison. I have a potty trained 13 week old pup that I can trust to take to work and know that he will be a perfectly behaved angel the entire time. He will be all energy when I direct my attention on him and engage him, but will be all relaxed when I’m occupied with something else.

Derby in the office

Fun and Games

We continue doing “fun” things too, whatever comes to mind. Sometimes it’s a behavior that might come in handy, sometimes it’s just something silly and only to have fun communicating with each other. Today I put an empty sleeve of an iPad on the floor and used a clicker to communicate to Derby that I wanted him to sit on it. He got it within seconds. It was very cool to be able to put the sleeve anywhere and Derby would run there to sit on it, even with distractions, and with my other dogs milling about. Who knows, this might come in handy one day. For now, what fun getting Derby to look up at me with one ear up, cute butt on an iPad sleeve!



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Can You Teach a Puppy To Avoid Future Conflicts? You Bet!

Week 11 in puppies’ lives started with a birth of another litter slightly before the due date, altering our schedule of games and challenging the puppies to accept longer breaks between activities. Their reactions exceeded all my expectations. They are such good puppies! Their attention and desire to explore new games was fantastic. Just check out those sweet attentive faces directed at me the second I address them.

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With limited time I decided to still go through the new protocols I had planned and it turned out to be the best way to mentally stimulate and at the same time tire the puppies for long rests in between.

With all the foundation they have received so far they breezed through new protocols, slept like angels in their crates between outings, and showed a stellar understanding of when it was appropriate to be crazy rambunctious and when to slow down and chill.

It didn’t seem like there was any work on my part, but rather welcome, delicious breaks to be with them. I will describe here only some of our protocols.

Let’s All Be Friends

The biggest challenge I have faced in regards to living with multiple Norwich terriers had to do with jealousy between each other when vying for my attention, to the point of two girls being so aggressively jealous of each other that they could not be in the same room. They meant each other harm. Those painful experiences and my failure to avoid such chronic conflict was the genesis of this protocol. I used it in the last 5 years or so with great success.

DSC_6093The biggest trigger to being possessive about me is being held on my lap, which in technical terms is called “resource guarding”. My lap is the resource and the dog sitting on it guards it against others by growling and snapping (with associated negative emotions). My terriers are never food or toy aggressive, but some used to exhibit a strong resource guarding of my lap.

DSC_6098Do you remember Pavlov’s bell? Well, I use this principle to have my puppy associate other dogs approaching us (while he’s on my lap) the way Pavlov’s dogs associated a bell. I sit down on the grass, or on a floor indoors, and place a puppy on my lap when other puppies are a slight distance away. Of course the other puppies immediately want to get to me and climb on my lap as well. As soon as they get close the puppy on my lap gets high value food shoved in its mouth before it gets any time to protest arrival of his brothers.

DSC_6079 (2) This gets repeated throughout the day, day after day, with each puppy. I then vary the distance from other puppies, and again the moment they get close the puppy on my lap gets rewarded. This exercise creates what in dog training is called CER (conditioned emotional response). This conditioning creates involuntary response in a puppy when someone is approaching us while he is on my lap.  The puppy is responding with pleasure. The involuntary and emotional aspect of the association makes it rock solid.

All science.

Canine Social Skills

DSC_6132This impressionable time in puppies’ lives (week 11) matters a lot in acquiring proper canine social skills. They learn bite inhibition, learn to modulate intensity of their roughhousing, to read other dogs’ body language, to invite play and respond appropriately, to exercise their inbred instinct (for terriers it means rodent hunting) and yes some doggy behaviors we don’t love, like rolling in stinky stuff.

The best role model is always the mother. Beanie’s particular brand of maternal education reflects why we call her our tomboy.

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Yes, that photo on the left above is a mother body slamming a puppy while another puppy is running for cover. I swear she loves them.

Lessons In Being A Terrier

When the adult dogs are actively tracking rodents I am not taking any chances in that highly charged situation and let the puppies observe only from a safety of an x-pen.

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As for what they learn from their sire, well… rolling in stinky is high on his list of life skills.

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He might have whispered the instructions to Banzo earlier that day…

Alert and Stop

Another protocol that I developed as a reaction to something undesirable my adult dogs were doing was accepting the inevitable alert barking in a typically excitable terrier style  but then teaching a puppy to stop when I clap my hands.

I actually reward puppies for alert-barking (when I can see a clear reason for the alert, like someone walking on our street, which is not a common thing). I give them praise and acknowledge that I see what they are “talking about” and then I clap my hands and immediately reward the silence. Initially, the clap is startling enough that they stop to find out what it was. If marking the behavior (with a clicker or voice mark) is well timed, then the puppy got rewarded for stopping. Next, the time between the clap and a marker (following silence of course) gets increased bit by bit.

DSC_6001I grabbed the camera when someone was walking the street and I knew the pups would be alerting me but I was able to snap this shot only. Too bad I don’t have a photo of the puppy looking at me waiting for the reward after clapping. It’s a little difficult to clap and take photos. Here Banzo stopped barking and is now silently watching a passerby. Good boy, Banzo!


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Challenges of Puppies Born Prematurely

We Have Newborns!

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It is very rare for me to have two litters in one year, and we will not have more puppies for a while, but this turned out to be a summer of babies. Two days ago Moxie gave natural birth (not a given in our breed) to two girls and a boy.

The puppies were born 3 days before a due date, as calculated by pinpointing ovulation with LH and blood progesterone tests. Canine pregnancy is only 63 days from ovulation, exactly 9 weeks. Its length has nothing to do with mating date but only with ovulation. In other words, it is the life of an egg that times the pregnancy.

You can think of every week of dog’s pregnancy as translating to a month in human pregnancy. A birth three days early for a puppy does roughly correspond to a human baby born half a month early. The fact that I knew the exact due date was important in both preparing the environment and employing extra vigilance in caring for the newborns, with the understanding of all critical points for preemies.

You can see the typical signs of slight prematurity in the more lanky body shape and the lack of facial hair and lack of hair on paws, with patches of a bald smooth skin there.

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Challenges of The First Night

When you are dealing with preemies all the usual concerns for the newborns’ wellbeing get heightened, and there are additional concerns that have to do with readiness to live outside the womb. The lungs and GI tract tend to mature last. And then, there is a big concern over receiving colostrum within hours of birth. Sometimes when mothers give birth early they are not producing colostrum in time. Luckily, I could put two big check marks next to lungs being OK and colostrum flowing.

DSC_6021We had stellar first 12 hours, with puppies gaining considerable weight, which signifies receiving disease fighting colostrum. When you hear the term “maternal derived antibodies”, or MDAs, it means the antibodies received by a puppy through colostrum in the first hours of its life. MDAs are often misunderstood, even by experienced breeders, to come from mother’s milk when puppies are nursing, but that is only true for the first 24 hours of their life. After that mother’s milk is no longer delivering MDAs and the puppy’s intestine is no longer porous to receive the antibody proteins. When people express concern over vaccinating puppies that are still nursing, that is because they do not understand the  timing of MDA transfer.

DSC_6161Just as I was congratulating myself on puppy weight gain and things going well, the night brought the first challenge. In the middle of the night, in that “trouble hour” right around 3 AM, Moxie started acting restless. She was whining and shifting position constantly. When I saw her attempting to move puppies around, I suspected her blood calcium level to be low. She had been drinking Mother’s Pudding (something I described in detail in an earlier post) but apparently she needed more calcium. Confirming low blood calcium level at 3 AM would mean taking her to an emergency clinic, a scenario carrying more risk than benefit, so I acted on a presumption but took a  conservative approach and supplemented calcium orally with Health Powder added to Mother’s Pudding. Moxie settled very fast. Whew!DSC_6165

A New Night, A New Challenge

DSC_6045Day two of puppies life is when the colostrum high in protein and full of antibodies is no longer produced and the puppies start drinking fatty milk. For preemies fat can present a challenge and it did for this litter. Last night (why, oh why it always has to be the night?) two of the puppies developed diarrhea. They screamed in pain. Moxie was beside herself.

Again, in the middle of the night you work on the most likely assumption before taking the risks associated with taking preemies to an emergency clinic, a place they would most certainly be exposed to air borne pathogens.

DSC_6044I considered the facts. Only two out of three puppies had a problem, the two that had been gaining the most weight. It was right around the time when the fatty milk was replacing colostrum. I hoped to be right that the problem was their GI tract not being fully mature to deal with rich milk, and that it was not some infection. Again I took a conservative approach first. To prevent dehydration I gave the puppies some boiled and cooled down water with a  dropper, one drop at a time. I was ready to escalate intervention, if needed, and got fluids ready for subcutaneous injections. Luckily, the puppies stayed properly hydrated and I never had to pierce their delicate skin.

You check a newborn’s hydration level by lightly pinching skin on the shoulder, which should snap back in place in less than a second, and also by stimulating a puppy to pee on a white cotton ball. If the urine has any hint of color, the puppy is dehydrated. These puppies still had watery, colorless urine. Their skin snapped back in place when lightly pinched.


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DSC_6159One of the things I always have on hand in my “pregnancy kit” is Probiotics specifically formulated to survive canine stomach acids and to get to the intestine, where they are needed. I rely on the product called Fortiflora, which until recently was available by prescription only.

I combined Fortiflora powder with some boiled and cooled water to make a paste. After washing my hands thoroughly I put a little paste on the tip of my finger and let each puppy suckle it off my finger. I let them do it every 1/2 hour or so, perfectly timed in between laundry loads of soiled whelping box blankets, and by the morning the puppies quieted completely and started gaining weight again. Their stools remained slightly loose but the dangerous explosive diarrhea was over. Another huge whew!


Moxie is taking much needed relaxed breaks from the puppies, at her own pace, and she seems to be really happy. And I am enjoying both the quiet after the storm and the fantastic adjustment of our 11-week old puppies. I just love these boys! They have been little stars through the last 2 days, with all our previous training paying off big time. More on that in the next post.


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Week 10 Protocols

Crate Training

The puppies continue to soak up experiences like little sponges and I’m racing to teach them skills and behaviors before week 12 when they join their new families.

When I got my first Norwich Terrier he was air shipped to me and came out of his crate an emotional mess I spent the next years undoing. I am convinced that he was not properly crate trained (if at all) or prepared for travel. I vowed that no puppy will ever again be shipped on my behalf and also learned a lot about crate training.

Crate training does not mean shoving your puppy into a crate for a certain amount of time and asking the puppy to do all the work. Demanding of the animal to cope is not training. Training (at least positive reinforcement training) is a creative and interactive process of shaping a behavior. If a target behavior is relaxing in a crate, I need to do my part before asking puppy to do his. And relaxing is not the same as resigning to something.

The process is individualized based on each puppy’s response. My incremental, daily goals for each puppy were different because they are different individuals, but they all reached the ultimate goal of sleeping happily in their individual crates at night and waiting relaxed to be let out in the morning.

First, four crates were added to the puppy pen for them to explore at their own pace. This aspect of choice is very important in making an initial association. It also allowed me to observe the differences in each puppy’s willingness to enter a small space.

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Next, some really exciting things started appearing in those crates every time the puppies returned from a romp in the back yard. The boys quickly learned to race back from each outing to check out the crates. Soon they started using them for stashing their own treasures.


In the next stage I closed the crate doors after puppies settled there with a yummy chew du jour. Derby did not like that, so I had to adjust for smaller steps for him in accepting confinement. I left his crate door slightly ajar, and increasingly more closed till I could lock the crate without any protest. Actually, the release to get out immediately was a reward for the first couple of times.

I kept those closed door sessions short and sweet for everyone. Once the pups were able to expect a closed door and settle nicely each time I started putting them into crates. Till now, they entered crates on their own choice. Again, I kept the door closed for short sessions. In just a few sessions (remember those breaks matter!) the puppies were totally relaxed being put into individual crates and having the doors closed. Now, many small session later, they have slept through the night, no peep from them, for the last 3 nights.

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Potty Training

The puppies have been using potty area since their first meal other than their mother’s milk. Now, at the same time as I introduce their crates I’m phasing out the potty tray. The concurrency of those two things is as important as setting the potty area was for the first meal. (See a blog post on that here).

Releasing puppies from the crate, especially in the morning, means that I can bank on their need to pee. I get them outside very fast. We have just a short, few seconds run to the door leading to the back yard.  They are very good at going potty outside as soon as they hit the grass. The puppies have built a beautiful association of relieving themselves when outdoors.

The challenge now is to hold it when indoors and the potty tray is not in sight. For days when I’m home I remove the potty tray from their area and let them out every 2 hours, 20 minutes after each meal, and after every intensive play session. With this schedule they are going potty outside only, but it requires diligence. When I know I will not be here to let them out in 2 hours I put back the cat litter tray. The greatest thing is that once outside they go potty immediately and look at me for praise. You have to see it to know how cute that is.

Modulating Arousal

This week we have been playing a lot of games to teach puppies relaxing or getting excited, as appropriate to a situation. They have been very good at recall, even as I’ve been giving them a lot of freedom to get away quite some distance from me, and even out of sight, before I call them back. However, when we had visitors they were so overexcited that they did not come back immediately. I realized that it would be helpful for them to learn controlling their arousal (to some realistic degree).

So we played a lot of games of crazy excited play, chase, toy tugs and then settling for a quiet time of  lazy belly rubs, chewing sticks and just hanging out. We did it over and over and each time the puppies were better and better at switching gears.

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Walking Through Shadows and Navigating Steps

This is a “Norwich” thing.  I found that some of my adolescent dogs get spooked on sunny days at dog shows by the intense light contrast between a shaded area under a tent and the open area flooded with light. There is a similar condition when we leave our walk-out basement or are coming back to it from the yard on a sunny day. It must look crazy to anyone witnessing it as we race back and forth through the door with lots of praise. It is working though. After an initial hesitation to walk past the line of light contrast, now the puppies race right through it.

Stairs are physically challenging for puppies, so I try to limit their time going down, but I do like using stairs to overcome mild fear. My goal is to get puppies to come to the very edge and not back away when I approach to pick them up. It also makes for a great setting for puppy photos.

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Continuing Fun and Games

We are getting on and off a grooming table every day. The puppies have their mouths and feet touched, with good things happening right afterwards.

They are learning that great things keep happening when they come when called. And they continue to experience new objects, new people and new dogs. What a life!

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Manding: Giving Puppy A Voice

Among Puppy Culture protocols “manding” is one of the most genius ones. It is a phenomenal foundation for effective communication between a puppy and humans. “Manding” is an automatic sit in front of a person the puppy is interacting with. It is not a required behavior, or a rule, but rather an acceptable behavior taught to replace jumping on a person. It is not the same as a “sit” command.  Think of manding as sitting when the puppy would be otherwise jumping up.

A puppy is naturally predisposed, programmed if you will, to jump on a dog or person they are soliciting interaction from. Excitable jumping is charming in a teeny puppy but gets old fast in an adult dog.  As the author of Puppy Culture Jane Killion puts it, manding is a voice given to a puppy. Now, he can tell you he wants to interact and do it in a welcome way, without jumping on you or an x-pen as you’re approaching, for the rest of his life. He is no longer in danger of being pushed off or shut down while either asking for attention or responding to your call for it.

The gallery of photos below is an honest, spontaneous illustration of what it looks like when puppies use manding as automatically as they would use running up to a person to paw and jump, an illustration that came about totally by accident. Our friend Donna Stein, who is a talented amateur photographer, was visiting us and brought her camera to take some portraits of puppies. While I was readying dinner for us in the kitchen Donna went downstairs to the puppy room to take some photos. I was busy with food prep, so I only peripherally registered that Donna was making lots of sounds to apparently elicit puppies’ attention.

Next day Donna sent me several gorgeous photos of the puppies and as I flipped through them in a sequence I realized that the puppies were manding every time Donna asked for their attention.  Donna was making high pitched noises and puppies were manding immediately. Every action shot, catching puppies  in the middle of play, is only a couple of seconds away from them manding, and you can see the process unfolding right before your eyes. Thank you Donna for these terrific pictures!

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Food Matters Part 3 – Shortcuts, Hacks and Tips

Don’t Get Trapped In “All Or Nothing” Approach


It helps to think of cooking for dogs as similar to exercising. It is a healthy choice and it does not have to mean dedication of hours and hours of your time. If you do not have time for a gym, skipping an elevator for a staircase, or taking a longer walk (with a dog of course) is better than nothing.

With a full time career, other hobbies and a family, there are just days when I don’t have time to cook for dogs. However, I do see a difference in how my dogs look and what their energy is on a home-cooked diet, not to mention their enthusiasm for it, so I try my best to cook as much as I can. When my time is limited, before opening a bag of kibble, I use fresh-meal-shortcuts first.

Easy Substitutions for Fresh Veggies in the “Master Recipe”

Here are some substitutions for fresh vegetables and fruit in my “master recipe” (for the recipe see my blog post Food Matters Part 2 here):

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  • Use dried vegetables formulated for dogs (e.g. Dr. Harvey’s Veg-to-Bowl Dog Food) in the proportion of 1/4 cup dried substituted for 1 cup fresh vegetables
  • Use frozen vegetables in place of fresh “yellow” or “green” in the “master recipe”
  • Use “mixed frozen vegetables” for both but make sure there is no onion
  • Use canned vegetables in place of fresh ( 1/3 cup of canned vegetable is a substitute for a cup of fresh vegetable in the “master recipe”)
  • Use quick oats for “grains and fruit”

Meats should always be meat or fish, with a good portion of organ meat to avoid phosphorus imbalance associated with feeding exclusively muscle meat. Buying in bulk and freezing is helpful. When getting organ meats try to use very little liver, as it has a high fat content.

Easy Fresh Meals

It’s good to have a backup plan and a supply of a couple of useful items in your pantry for those times when boiling an egg or opening  a can is the best you can do for your furry friend.

Examples of simple, fresh meals

  • lightly scrambled or soft boiled eggs
  • cottage cheese (you can add some fruit like blueberries or cored, diced apple, if your dog likes raw fruit)
  • skinned raw chicken necks
  • canned fish,  like mackerel, tuna or salmon (low sodium and packed in water)
  • skinned and deboned plain rotisserie chicken (cartilage is OK) with some canned pumpkin mixed in (a sprinkling of seaweed calcium for dogs makes it perfect)
  • yogurt (goat’s yogurt especially)



Mixed Approach

You can use any of the above suggestions of fresh stand-alone meals as additions to be sprinkled on top of kibble. Please remember to reduce the amount of kibble when adding fresh topping. All benefits of fresh food will be trumped by dangers of overfeeding.

Slow Cooker Meals

Slow cooker is a good option when you are OK with prep work but would rather not spend any time cooking. An advantage of a slow cooker is that you can cook chicken and fish with bones on very low heat for a long time and the bones will be completely soft and become a part of the meal. Remember to remove skin and fat when cooking a whole chicken. I use the low setting for 10 hours overnight and then restart my slow cooker in the morning for another 8 hours.


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Dog treats do not have to be unhealthy and full of empty calories. Many dogs are happy with carrot or apple slices, or even raw string beans.

For high value  healthy treats I use dried fish (e.g. dried anchovies). I find them in a local Korean market. My dogs go bonkers for them.

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They also love plain cheerios. I consider them to be vitamin pills, with all the vitamins and minerals added to them.

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When you are feeling ambitious, you can make irresistible home-made chicken strips either in the oven or dehydrator. Slice thinly chicken breast or thigh meat, lightly brush with oil, arrange on a cookie sheet and dry in the oven at 150° F for 3 1/2 hours, or in a dehydrator at 140° for 4 hours.


Human Foods That Are Dangerous To Dogs

toxic foods for dogs

Please make sure that you never feed your dog any of the following foods:

  • onions
  • grapes
  • raisins
  • avocado
  • macadamia nuts
  • tea and coffee
  • chocolate

For a complete list of foods toxic to dogs please visit ASPCA webpage here.

And lastly, please remember that switching to home-cooked diet from kibble should be a gradual process because you need to allow time for digestive flora to build new colonies involved in digesting new foods. For the earlier post on the subject click here.

Fat Warning

Dogs do not process fat well. Just ask any emergency veterinarian about the busiest time of the year and you will hear how animal emergency hospitals are packed a day after Thanksgiving and Christmas with dogs suffering from pancreatitis.  Fatty turkey skin, cheesy and buttery potatoes given to dogs by their well meaning owners result in a lot of pain at best and a life threatening condition in the worst case scenario.

When preparing home-cooked meals for dogs always trim off all the fat and remove skin from poultry because of its high fat content.

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